“文明冲突”是特朗普与中国之战最糟糕的争端?

(美联社 Nicolas Asfouri/Getty)

与特朗普总统的大多数外交政策不同,他对中国的敌对态度在华盛顿相对受欢迎。很多人都认为,中国的贸易政策是不公平的,其侵犯人权的行为是严重的,其在南中国海(South China Sea)和台湾海峡(Taiwan Strait)的姿态也是咄咄逼人的。然而,特朗普政府对北京使用的更广泛的措辞并不总是让很多中国专家满意。事实上,很多人讨厌它。他们当然不认为特朗普政府和习近平领导的中国之间的争端是“文明冲突”。少部分人更认为这场争论的核心是种族间的冲突。因此,当一名国务院高级官员、特朗普竞选团队的前工作人员在本周讨论其政府对华政策时,同时提到了这两件事,引发了亚洲观察人士的大量批评。

毕业于哈佛大学的历史学家,国务院政策规划部主任Kiron Skinner周一在与美国智库新美洲的一个活动中提出了为什么与中国的纠纷不同于冷战时期美国对苏联的抵制的疑问。她说:“这是一场与一种完全不同的文明和意识形态的斗争,美国以前从未有过这种情况,令人吃惊的是,美国第一次有一个强大的竞争对手,却不是白人”。身为非裔美国人的她将种族问题作为当前冷战与反苏的另一种区别。这些言论引起了中国观察人士的警惕,他们对美国面临的最大挑战之一的简单化看法感到失望。

威尔逊Abraham Denmark,前国防部负责东亚事务的副助理国务卿说,他们反映了“对中国本身根本性的误解和我们自已所面临的挑战”,而Michael Swain Swaiine,卡内基国际和平基金会中国问题专家则说这是一个“相当令人震惊的,基于种族论调”的威胁。

作为政策规划总监,Skinner不仅要帮助实施特朗普的外交政策,还将向世界证明这一政策的合理性。

周一,她对智库新美洲不仅描述了“特朗普主义”侧重于国家主权,还描述了“庞佩奥推论”,国务院“在总统试图做的事情的各个方面找到了外交角度”,每项政策背后不可能没有论据”。但一谈到中国,这种论据就显得不太恰当。她似乎忘记了第二次世界大战美国在太平洋战场上与日本作战的事。尽管她引用德国政治理论家卡尔·马克思(Karl Marx)对苏联的影响作为证据,证明冷战“是一场西方国家家庭内部的斗争”,但她忽略了马克思对中国共产主义的影响。相反,她借鉴了哈佛政治学家Samuel Huntington的“文明冲突”理论。Samuel Huntington写于1993年的那本书,现在人们记得最清楚是他对西方世界和伊斯兰世界冲突的建议。他也写了大量关于崛起中的中国的文章。

在特朗普政府的领导下,Skinner这一论点得到了支持。哈佛大学(Harvard)教授Graham Allison警告说,美中之间的战争可能是不可避免的,他对此表示赞许,其他反华活动人士则以更加咄咄逼人的口吻呼应其理论。但是,也有许多人认为,正如不断扩大的打击伊斯兰恐怖主义的战争所证明的那样,文明冲突的想法最终可能会成为自我实现的预言。“在美国,一些人一直在寻找一个强大的对手,我们可以有与之竞争优势和控制世界,中国经济的崛起给了人们一个新的竞争对手并被提升到了‘生存威胁’的地位”,卡托研究所的Simon Lester今年1月为国家利益所写的文章中写道。

通过强调文明之间的冲突,很容易忽视中美争端的实质内容

到目前为止,本周在北京正在进行谈判的大部分争端都是在贸易领域展开的。据报道,事情进展积极,一些人预计下周将达成协议。与此同时,两国间的其他紧迫问题并没有得到解决,其中最明显的是人权问题。尽管立法者呼吁特朗普政府制裁在中国新疆参与大规模拘留维吾尔族人事件的中国官员,但白宫尚未采取行动。Skinner在周一的讲话中似乎暗示:与中国就侵犯人权问题进行对话的空间很小。

Skinner在谈到1975年赫尔辛基协议的人权问题时表示:由于中国有着不同的文化,“这在中国是不可能实现的”。不过,这很难成为说服华盛顿政策专家支持特朗普对华之战的有力论据,Skinner的言论引发的愤怒反应就证明了这一点。美国公众并不相信来自中国的威胁,国际上则更看好习近平而不是特朗普。当然,这也可能无法说服特朗普。尽管带着文明冲突的华丽辞藻,但总统本人显然对寻找共同点很感兴趣。正如一位了解贸易谈判情况的消息人士告诉英国《金融时报》;许多问题被抛诸脑后,“因为特朗普总统希望达成协议”。

 

《加拿大和世界报道》编译中心 Daisy Lv

https://www.washingtontonpost.com/world

Adam Taylor

2019/05/02

The worst justification for Trump’s battle with China? The ‘clash of civilizations’


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