中国最大规模雪豹调查即将完成

图为2016年年底,卧龙自然保护区内拍到的雪豹图像。图片来源:卧龙自然保护区供图。

10月23日是“世界雪豹日”,中国四川卧龙自然保护区一项针对雪豹的大规模调查已渐入尾声。调查主要发起人、卧龙自然保护区木江坪保护站站长施小刚等人判断,在卧龙保护区钱梁山观测点,海拔4000米至5700米的120平方公里的区域内,雪豹数量超过9只。

这项中国最大规模的雪豹调查从2016年底开始,卧龙境内数百台红外相机至今已捕捉到超过500张雪豹照片。

按照中国境内雪豹分布平均密度每100平方公里0.5—0.6只来看,卧龙自然保护区有可能是中国西南山地野外雪豹种群数密度分布最高的地方,而卧龙也因此成为全球范围内距离千万级人口大都市最近的雪豹出没地。

和中国青海等地的雪豹种群相比,四川卧龙地区的雪豹种群活动范围较小。“卧龙地区由于生态保护好、食物充沛等原因,雪豹不需要太大范围活动,就能获取足够的食物。”施小刚说,一般来说,雪豹的活动范围约在50—100平方公里左右,但在钱梁山120平方公里的范围内,已经发现了至少3个雪豹家庭。

雪豹是处于高山野生动物食物链最顶端的王者。研究普遍认为,高山地区有雪豹出没,证明该地方生态系统完整以及生物多样性丰富。

“从全世界范围来看,雪豹研究领域存在太多的空白。”施小刚告诉本报记者,中国涵盖了全世界60%的雪豹栖息地,但雪豹的数量有多少,一直备受争议。

图为施小刚带队的调查小组,冒着生命危险在雪线上寻找雪豹踪迹。图片来源:卧龙自然保护区供图。

图为2009年初,卧龙自然保护区梯子沟安装的红外线相机第一次拍摄到的雪豹。图片来源:卧龙自然保护区供图。

人民日报记者 宋豪新

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