章莹颖好姑娘,美国司法欠你一个公正!

王冠 (中央电视台北美分台首席时政记者)

美国的法律体系讲究“程序正义”,尤其体现在对被告权益的保护上。

章莹颖案的调查阶段,克里斯滕森不曾被刑讯逼供,他享有的沉默权(Miranda’s Rights)使他不必自证其罪;审判,他穿着自己喜欢的衬衫和休闲西裤进入庭审现场,没有囚服,没有脚镣,第五天因偏头疼还被法官允许提前离庭,回到了他那个拥有电视、淋浴、视频电话的看守所双人间;凶手家人付不起高昂的辩护律师费,于是法庭中途给他更换了一名免费的公共律师。

量刑审判的9天里,6天留给了辩方举证陈词;最终宣判,12名陪审员中有2人反对死刑,其中一人认为克里斯滕森作案前服用的抗抑郁症药物对其行为产生了影响,另一人则认为凶手在监狱内没有再次伤害别人的可能。因此,凶手被判终身监禁,免于一死。

章莹颖案的每个环节似乎都彰显了“正当程序”的力量。


这张6月24日的法庭素描显示的是布伦特·克里斯滕森(前右)在位于美国伊利诺伊州皮奥里亚的联邦法院出庭受审。(图/新华网)

然而,程序正义总能保证实质正义吗?

当然,实质正义是一个见仁见智的概念。但至少在章莹颖家人和许多中国民众眼中,此案的正义并没有完全得到伸张。克里斯滕森蓄意绑架、强暴章莹颖,勒死未遂后用刀狂捅其颈部,后砍头分尸。他多次对联邦执法人员撒谎、作伪证。案发至审判769天以来,他未曾对章莹颖父母说过一声“对不起”,他甚至不肯透露章莹颖尸体的下落,致使父母带女儿遗体回国安葬的最后心愿也无法得到满足。这些都是检方要求死刑判决的重判条件。但由于一两个陪审员的反对,罪犯便无须“杀人偿命”。理论上,N年后他或许还有可能获得总统特赦。法庭宣判的那一刻,克里斯滕森低头微笑,然后同他的律师紧紧拥抱。

这一幕,让一些人想起了1994年震惊全球的“辛普森杀妻”案, 在带有血迹的作案手套、袜子及DNA检验结果俱在,铁证如山的情况下,经过200多天的漫长审判,由8名黑人、2名拉丁裔、1名白人、1名亚裔混血组成的陪审团却依然判定黑人橄榄球明星辛普森无罪释放。全美一片哗然。绝大多数聆听了案情的美国人至今都相信辛普森杀害了妻子。


辛普森最后被无罪释放(资料图)

由于篇幅和专业所限,在此不对美国的法律制度进行深入探究。我只想结合在庭审现场的观察,谈谈对章莹颖案陪审团的几点思考和疑惑。

首先,陪审团中绝大多数是白人。

设立陪审团的本意是避免法官一人专断,用“一般人会怎么做”的标尺来协助刑罚。在庭审现场我们看到,12名陪审员中至少有11名白人(另外一人貌似白人混血),占比达92%,远高于美国非拉丁裔白人占比(60%)以及整个伊利诺伊州的白人占比(70%)。

当年的辛普森杀妻案,被告律师通过程序正义赋予的各种手段,打造了一个黑人为主的陪审团阵容帮助辛普森获得无罪宣判,在当年引发了颇多争议。在章莹颖案中,为什么在明知罪犯是白人的情况下,选择了12名白人或拥有白人血统的陪审员?亚裔及其他族裔的情感诉求又如何能够被体现?

第二,此案在已经废除死刑的州审判。

在美国判处死刑绝非易事。放眼全美,21个州已废除了死刑,在没有废除死刑的29个州里,过去5年曾执行过死刑的也只有13个。伊利诺伊州8年前就废除了死刑,虽然此案所在的联邦法庭理论上可以判处死刑,但陪审员都是伊利诺伊州的居民,很难不受当地主流观念的影响。

第三,被律师和程序“摆布”的陪审团。

美国是法治国家(rule of law)不假,但“律师治国”(rule of lawers)也是其中一股强大的暗流。辩护律师们娴熟地利用规则,左右陪审团认知。比如在量刑第二天,章莹颖男友侯霄霖出庭作证。当他的声音开始哽咽,开始讲述失去章莹颖给自己带来的痛苦时,被告律师觉察到接下来的表述会打动陪审团,立刻无情打断证人,并要求法官判处证人作证无效,因为证词中希望严惩凶手的段落疑似违反了“不得对凶手量刑提出建议”的规定。法庭一度中断。章莹颖弟弟、父亲、同学作证时也多次出现了辩方律师“合理”利用规则打断庭审进程、给陪审员进行人工“感情降温”的情况。

此外,据笔者的现场观察,克里斯滕森在陪审团在场与否的情况下表现大不相同。陪审团在场时,知道律师帮自己主打“精神病”牌的他绝大部分时候面无表情。而当陪审团退场后,他和律师常常有说有笑。

最后要说,美国主流媒体对章莹颖案冷漠地“集体哑火”令人失望。

案件宣判当天,谷歌新闻搜索排名前十的对此案的报道全部来自中国媒体或伊利诺伊州地方媒体。在庭审现场感受更加明显,七排旁听席一半座位是空的,半数以上旁听者是章莹颖的家人、朋友以及中方使领馆人员和中国记者。仅有的三、四个美国记者也是当地电视台看上去20来岁的年轻人。其他在场的美国人则是控辩双方的家人,以及当地大学法学系的学生。

来源:观察者网 2019-07-22


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