面对频繁发生大规模枪击案,美国两党推出新法案

◆ 加强枪支销售过程中的背景调查
◆ 要求联邦机构和州政府制定计划,上传并认证必要的犯罪记录和精神健康问题记录,防止枪支落入不适合持枪的购买者手中
◆ 
联邦政府无法强制要求州政府遵守,因此制定了一些激励措施 

面对近期频繁发生的大规模枪击案,美国两党参议员推出一项新法案,将加强枪支销售过程中的背景调查。

该法案由德州参议员、共和党人John Cornyn和康涅狄格州参议员、民主党人Chris Murphy共同提出,意在更好的执行现有的枪支法律,同时加强“全美实时犯罪背景调查(National Instant Criminal Background Check)”系统,确保所有的背景调查信息被及时上报。

根据这项法案,有关部门将采取数项措施确保所有的记录都被上传,包括要求联邦机构和州政府制定计划,上传并认证必要的犯罪记录和精神健康问题记录,防止枪支落入不适合持枪的购买者手中

不过,由于联邦政府无法强制要求州政府遵守上传规定,因此法案制定了一些激励措施,推动州政府遵守;并且法案还规定,如果有关机构未能遵守,政务官员的奖金将会被扣。此外,法案还拨出部分联邦资金,用于确保家暴犯罪记录也被加入到背景调查系统中。

最近一段时间以来,美国连续发生了数宗大规模枪击案,引发了社会震动。一个月前,拉斯维加斯发生了美国史上最严重的大规模枪击案,枪手史蒂芬-帕多克在赌场曼德勒海湾度假酒店的32层房间里向参加91号公路丰收节的人群开枪射击,造成共58人死亡,546人受伤。警方在他房间发现了至少17支枪支,包括改装过的全自动AR-15突击步枪,以及大量弹药。

本月5日,得州萨瑟兰斯普林斯市发生了该州史上最严重的枪击案,一名枪手在当地第一浸信会教堂内射击,至少造成26人死亡,20人受伤。

警方调查发现,凶手凯利(Devin Patrick Kelley)曾在2012年从一所精神病院逃脱。同年,他被美国空军一个军事法庭裁定实施家暴,被判12个月监禁。另外,他还曾偷偷带枪进入军事基地、威胁上级长官等。然而,美国空军并没有按规定把对凯利的定罪裁决录入联邦数据系统,导致凯利2016年4月顺利通过背景调查,买到了枪案中使用的AR-556步枪。

Cornyn周四在推出这项法案时表示,多年来,联邦各机构和州政府都未遵守法律、未能上传这些重要的记录。一个未能正确上报的记录就有可能导致悲剧的发生,就像上周发生在得州萨瑟兰斯普林斯市的悲剧一样。这个法案的目的就是要帮助修补这个已经成为了全国性、系统性的问题,从而确保那些罪犯、家暴者无法获得枪支。

这项法案是对现有法律的进一步补充,得到了国会高级共和党参议员的支持,并且枪支游说机构也没有公开予以反对,是近年来最有可能通过国会审议的枪支法案。

Murphy也表示,这项法案将加强背景调查系统、救人一命,“我们的法案将成为重要的里程碑,表明在枪支问题上两党也可以达成真正的折衷方案。”


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来源:2017-11-17 界面新闻  瞭望

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